Calcio y fracturas

1000 mg calcium/400 IU vit D not very effective for fracture prevention (WHI)
Clinical Question:
Does supplementation with 1000 mg calcium and 400 IU vitamin D reduce the risk of fracture in healthy women?
Bottom Line:
The ability of a small dose of calcium and vitamin D to prevent fractures in healthy community−dwelling women is modest
at best. This study used a relatively low dose of vitamin D (less than the 700 IU to 800 IU found most beneficial in
previous studies), and the patients were generally at low risk of fracture. Perhaps that explains the discordance of these
findings with the bulk of the literature on this topic. (LOE = 1b)
Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, et al, for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Calcium plus vitamin D
supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 669−83.
Study Design:
Randomized controlled trial (double−blinded)
A previous meta−analysis limited to studies in which women received more than 400 IU of vitamin D found a significant
37% reduction in vertebral fractures (Endocr Rev 2002;23:560−69). In this substudy of the Women’s Health Initiative,
36,282 women were randomized to receive either 1000 mg calcium and 400 IU vitamin D per day or placebo. The study
had 85% power to detect an 18% decrease in hip fractures and 99% power to detect an 18% decrease in total fractures.
The primary outcome was the number of hip fractures and a secondary outcome was total fractures. Fractures of the ribs,
sternum, skull, face, fingers, toes, and cervical vertebrae did not contribute toward the total fracture number. The groups
were balanced at the start of the study, analysis was by intention to treat, and the number of patients who dropped out or
were lost to follow−up was modest (approximately 500 in each group). After a mean of 7 years, there was a
nonsignificant trend toward fewer hip fractures (0.14% vs 0.16% per year; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.72 − 1.08)
and a similar nonsignificant trend toward fewer total fractures (1.64% vs 1.70%). The authors did quite a bit of
data−dredging (ie, post−hoc subgroup analyses) and found that if there was any benefit, it was among older women and
women who fell less often. Women who were adherent to the calcium and vitamin D regimen also had fewer hip fractures
(relative risk = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52 − 0.97). The total intake of calcium and vitamin D from diet and supplements varied
considerably, with no clear trend toward greater benefit in women ingesting more of either substance. Interestingly,
all−cause mortality was lower in the supplement group, although this didn’t quite reach statistical significance (HR = 0.91;
95% CI, 0.83 − 1.01). Not surprisingly, women in the supplement group had 17% more kidney stones. A subgroup also
had regular bone mineral density measurements, which showed greater preservation of bone density among women
taking the supplements.
PMID: 16481635
Delivered as Daily InfoPOEM: 2006−04−05

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