Vaccine production, distribution, access, and uptake

The LancetImage via Wikipedia

The LancetVolume 378, Issue 9789, Pages 428 – 438, 30 July 2011

Published Online: 09 June 2011

doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60478-9Cite or Link Using DO

Vaccine production, distribution, access, and uptake

Jon Smith PhD aProf Marc Lipsitch DPhil bProf Jeffrey W Almond PhD a Corresponding AuthorEmail Address


For human vaccines to be available on a global scale, complex production methods, meticulous quality control, and reliable distribution channels are needed to ensure that the products are potent and effective at the point of use. The technologies used to manufacture different types of vaccines can strongly affect vaccine cost, ease of industrial scale-up, stability, and, ultimately, worldwide availability. The complexity of manufacturing is compounded by the need for different formulations in different countries and age-groups. Reliable vaccine production in appropriate quantities and at affordable prices is the cornerstone of developing global vaccination policies. However, to ensure optimum access and uptake, strong partnerships are needed between private manufacturers, regulatory authorities, and national and international public health services. For vaccines whose supply is insufficient to meet demand, prioritisation of target groups can increase the effect of these vaccines. In this report, we draw from our experience of vaccine development and focus on influenza vaccines as an example to consider production, distribution, access, and other factors that affect vaccine uptake and population-level effectiveness.