Although typhoid fever, caused by infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (often called S. typhi), long ago ceased to be a public health problem in industrialized countries, it is still a substantial cause of illness and death in many developing countries. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are 16 million to 33 million cases and 500,000 to 600,000 deaths from typhoid fever annually,1 though one study conservatively estimated that 22 million cases and 216,000 related deaths occurred in 2000.2 This death rate is not much lower than the estimated 270,000 annual deaths from cervical cancer, caused largely by the human papillomavirus (HPV), and is considerably greater than mortality from meningococcal meningitis and Japanese encephalitis.3 But whereas there has been considerable international momentum behind introducing vaccines against HPV and meningococcus, vaccination against typhoid fever has largely fallen off the international radar screen.
DeRoeck, Denise, Jodar, Luis, Clemens, John. Putting Typhoid Vaccination on the Global Health Agenda. N Engl J Med 2007 357: 1069-1071
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